One billion people lack access to health care systems. 36 million deaths each year are caused by non communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and chronic lung diseases. There are four main types of disease: infectious diseases, deficiency diseases, hereditary diseases (including both genetic diseases and non-genetic hereditary diseases), and physiological diseases.
Health issues mean any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc. softness, unfitness. poor physical condition; being out of shape or out of condition (as from a life of ease and luxury) condition. an illness, disease, or other medical problem.
Genetic disorder in humans is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities formed in the genome. Most genetic disorders are quite rare and affect one person in every several thousands or millions. … Genetic disorders may be hereditary, meaning that they are passed down from the parents’ genes.
Top 10 Global health threats are –
- Air pollution & climate change.
- Diabetes, cancer, and heart disease (among others).
- Global influenza pandemic.
- Fragile, vulnerable regions.
- Antimicrobial resistance.
- Ebola & other pathogens.
- Weak primary health care.
- Anti-vaccination movement.
Click here for Common Senior Health issues
Because nearly 40% of all deaths can be attributed to smoking, poor exercise habits, inadequate diet, and alcohol misuse, it’s pretty easy to see how you can add years to your life. Don’t smoke, get moving, eat healthy food and moderate any alcohol consumption. Clearly, healthy behavior choices are one prescription for successful aging.
10 most common health issues –
- Physical Activity and Nutrition.
- Overweight and Obesity.
- Drug & Alcohol abuse
- Mental Health.
- Injury and Violence.
- Environmental Quality.
- Access to health care.
Mental Wellness – Seniors sometimes find it hard to cope for various reasons. Here are a few of the challenges our patients say they have difficulty facing:
- Death and loss of family, friends and loved ones
- Symptoms of depression, such as changes in mood, appetite, sleep patterns, loss of interest in activity they once enjoyed, lack of energy, and death wish
- Anxiety, fears, worries
- Relationship and family problems
- Loneliness and feelings of isolation
- Difficulty remembering
- Stress and difficulty with changes
- Physical health problems
Elder abuse – Hundreds of thousands of seniors are abused, neglected, and exploited by family and others every year. Many of the victims are vulnerable and depend upon others to meet their basic needs. Who is the abuser? A study of elder abuse found that in majority of the cases, the abuser is a member of the family. Two-thirds of abusers are adult children or spouses.
The term elder abuse describes one or more of the following activities:
- Physical abuse means causing pain and/or injury by hurting, restraining, or sexually molesting a senior.
- Sexual abuse is non-consensual (not agreed to) sexual contact of any kind.
- Emotional and psychological abuse is causing distress by threatening, intimidating, and/or humiliating behavior.
- Financial abuse is the use of a senior’s money and resources, without consent, for someone else’s benefit.
- Neglect is the failure of caretakers to provide necessary goods and services, such as food and medicine.
- Self-neglect is when an elderly person threatens his or her own health and/or safety in any way.
Sexuality – Contrary to what some may believe, most men and women don’t lose their longing for togetherness or sex as they age. In fact, many seniors report that sexual experiences are enhanced with age. Just think of it. Although safe sex is still recommended for successful aging, there’s no longer a need for contraception, and your kids probably won’t interrupt your intimacy. And regular sexual activity helps maintain successful sexuality.
Signs of elder abuse –
- Personality changes
- Whimpering, crying, refusing to talk
- Unexplained or repeated bruises, fractures, burns and sores
- Weight loss
- Unkempt appearance
- Poor personal hygiene
- Dirty, disorganized living space
- Confusion, excessive sleeping, signs of inappropriate sedation (too much medicine)
Long term care – Most seniors want to age successfully and safely in their own home. That desire must be weighed against the possible risks. Does the senior have access to caregivers? Can the home be made safe? Even though a move into senior housing requires some personal disruption, senior housing affords a rich social life, nutritious meals, housekeeping, and an end to domestic chores like shoveling the walk and raking the leaves. Friendships, fun exercise programs, and group excursions into the community are part of the active and independent lifestyle found in senior communities.
Click here for Issues Specific to Women's Health
Health issues specific to women’s health –
While both men and women contract various conditions, some health issues affect women differently and more commonly. Furthermore, many women’s health conditions go undiagnosed and most drug trials do not include female test subjects. Even so, women bear exclusive health concerns, such as breast cancer, cervical cancer, menopause, and pregnancy. Women Depression and anxiety exhibit more frequently among female patients. Urinary tract conditions present more often in females, and sexually transmitted diseases can cause more harm to women. Among the conditions that present most frequently in women, the following eight illnesses pose considerable health risks.
In the United States, heart disease causes one in every four deaths among women. Although the public considers heart disease a common issue among men, the condition affects males and females nearly equally. Yet, only 54 percent of women realize that heart disease is the top health condition threatening their gender.
Breast cancer, which typically originates in the lining of the milk ducts, can spread to other organs, and is the most aggressive cancer affecting the global female population. The condition presents more among female populations in developed nations due to their extended life spans.
Initially, women afflicted with breast cancer may develop breast lumps. Most breast lumps are nonthreatening, but it is important for women to have each one checked by a care provider.
Ovarian and Cervical Cancer
Many people are not aware of the differences between ovarian and cervical cancer. Cervical cancer originates in the lower uterus, while ovarian cancer starts in the fallopian tubes. While both conditions cause similar pain, cervical cancer also causes discharge and pain during intercourse. While ovarian cancer presents extremely vague symptoms, the condition is very complex.
Bleeding and discharge are a normal part of the menstrual cycle. However, added symptoms during menstruation may indicate health issues, and unusual symptoms, such as bleeding between menstruations and frequent urinating, can mimic other health conditions.
Vaginal issues could also indicate serious problems such as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or reproductive tract cancer. While care providers might treat mild infections easily, if left unchecked, they can lead to conditions such as infertility or kidney failure.
Pre-existing conditions can worsen during pregnancy, threatening the health of a mother and her child. Asthma, diabetes, and depression can harm the mother and child during pregnancy if not managed properly.
Pregnancy can cause a healthy mother’s red blood cell count to drop, a condition called anemia, or induce depression. Fortunately, obstetricians can manage and treat common and rare health issues that emerge during pregnancies.
Autoimmune disease occurs when body cells that eliminate threats, such as viruses, attack healthy cells. As this condition continues to escalate among the population, researchers remain baffled as to why the condition affects mostly women. While many distinct autoimmune diseases exist, most share symptoms such as:
● Mild fever
● Skin irritation
Most of the autoimmune system rests in the stomach. Duly, many who suffer from this condition have resorted to natural healing practices, such as:
- Consuming less sugar
● Consuming less fat
● Lowering stress
● Reducing toxin intake
However, the best defense against autoimmune disease is early detection.
Osteoporosis – Osteoporosis weakens bones, allowing them to break easily. Several factors can cause the condition that occurs mostly in women, such as:
● Alcohol consumption
● Certain prescriptions
● Genetics and age
● Lack of exercise
● Low body mass
● Steroid use
To detect the condition, care providers measure bone density using an X-ray or ultrasound diagnostic. While no cure exists for osteoporosis, care providers can prescribe treatment to impede illness progression, which might include dietary supplements, healthy lifestyle choices, or prescription medication.
Depression and Anxiety
Natural hormonal fluctuations can lead to depression or anxiety. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) occurs commonly among women, while premenstrual dysmorphic disorder (PMDD) presents similar, but greatly intensified, symptoms. Shortly after birth, many mothers acquire a form of depression called the “baby blues,” but perinatal depression causes similar – but much stronger – concerns, emotional shifts, sadness, and tiredness. Perimenopause, the shift into menopause, can also cause depression. No matter how intense the symptoms, care providers can provide relief with prescription or therapeutic treatments.
Health Technology for Women
Soon, new technologies will emerge to assist care providers in treating women’s health conditions. Researchers have developed innovative medical treatments, such as a patient operated device that prepares women for breast reconstruction using carbon dioxide instead of needles and a blood test that can detect whether gestation has started outside of the fallopian tubes. Other developing medical technologies include an at home, do-it-yourself Pap smear and a test that determines pregnancy using saliva as a sample.
Women can lower the risk for cancers and other common illnesses with healthy habits and regular care provider visits. However, in many underserved communities nurse practitioners (NPs) and nurse midwives fill the shortage created by lack of care providers, while covering service areas encompassing far too many clients.
Click here for Common Health Problems for Children
While health issues for children tend to be different than those for adults, there are some problems that are common for children you should be aware of.
During infancy and the preschool years, the average child gets seven or eight colds a year. During the school-age years, they average five or six colds a year. With some colds lasting upwards of a week, it can often feel like you’re constantly facing sickness. Especially when that sickness generously makes its way through the entire family.
The frequency of childhood sickness boils down to the fact there are more than 200 viruses that can cause the common cold. As children have not yet had exposure to many of these germs, they’re quite susceptible to catching each and every one they come into contact with.
But on top of colds there are many other illnesses that are common in children.
Respiratory syncytial Virus ((RSV) – is the most common cause of breathing and respiratory infections in children, with children under two years of age being the most susceptible. RSV causes infection of the lungs and breathing passages.
In most cases, the symptoms are relatively minor and mirror those of a cold. But for premature babies and children with a compromised immune system, a congenital heart condition, or chronic lung disease, it can quickly become serious and cause either bronchiolitis or pneumonia.
Most likely this will occur during winter or early spring. It’s spread when an infected person talks, coughs or sneezes small droplets containing infectious agents into the air. It is also spread via contact with the hands, tissues and other articles soiled by infected nose and throat discharges. The virus survives only a few hours outside of the body and is easily killed by soap and water or disinfectants.
Ear Infection – are common in small children, but often resolve on their own, and children grow up to have healthy ears and normal hearing. There are 2 types of ear infections that children commonly contract: middle and outer ear infections. Depending on the age of the child, ear infections clear up on their own without antibiotics, however it is important to speak to your doctor for the proper course of action.
Signs and Symptoms –
- Trouble hearing;
- Pulling on their ear;
- Child has become irritable due to the pain;
- Vomiting, loss of appetite, lethargy and fever;
Gastroenteritis – Gastroenteritis is a bowel infection that causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines, which leads to diarrhoea and sometimes vomiting. The vomiting may stop quickly, but the diarrhoea can last for up to ten days. Gastro can be caused by many different germs, although the most common cause of gastro is a viral or bacterial infection.
Gastro will cause your child to feel unwell and they may not want to eat or drink. Vomiting may occur in the first 24 to 48 hours and will be accompanied by stomach pains and maybe a fever. Young babies and children can become dehydrated quickly, therefore if they show any signs of dehydration (drowsiness, not waking for feeds) they will need to be checked by a doctor.
Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFM) – Hand, foot and mouth disease is a usually mild virus that is common in children. Caused by a virus, it can cause blisters on the hands and feet, in the mouth and often in the nappy area. Symptoms can last around seven to ten days.
HFMD can be spread easily between children. The infection is spread by direct contact with fluid from the skin blisters, nose and throat discharges, droplets and faeces. Good personal hygiene is important to prevent the spread of the infection to others. The blisters will remain infectious until they become crusty and there is no more fluid in them. The virus can be shed in the faeces for several weeks after the blisters have gone. Children should stay home from school until the blisters and fever have completely cleared up.
It is important to monitor your child’s illness and consult a doctor if symptoms escalate.
Symptoms of Serious Diseases and Health Problems –
When is a cough “just” a cough, or a headache a symptom to be concerned about? Listed are signs and symptoms that could indicate a serious health condition, and you should see a doctor if you experience any symptoms of concern. Sometimes, a symptom in one part of the body may be a sign of a problem in another part of the body. Moreover, unrelated symptoms that might be minor on their own could be warning signs of a more serious medical disease or condition. Listen to your body, note all symptoms, and share them in detail with your doctor.
- Signs of a heart attack include pain, pressure, squeezing, or feeling of fullness in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes; pain or discomfort in other areas of the upper body; shortness of breath; cold sweat; nausea; or light headedness.
- Signs of a stroke include facial drooping, arm weakness, difficulty with speech, rapidly developing dizziness or balance, sudden numbness or weakness, loss of vision, confusion, or severe headache.
- Symptoms of lung problems include coughing up blood, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, chronic cough, repeated bouts of bronchitis or pneumonia, and wheezing.
- Symptoms of stomach or digestive problems include rectal bleeding, blood in the stool or black stools, changes in bowel habits or not being able to control bowels, constipation, diarrhea, heartburn or acid reflux, or vomiting blood.
- Symptoms of bladder problems include difficult or painful urination, frequent urination, loss of bladder control, blood in urine, waking frequently at night to urinate or wetting the bed at night, or leaking urine.
- Symptoms of skin problems include changes in skin moles, frequent flushing and redness of face and neck, jaundice, skin lesions that don’t go away or heal, new growths or moles on the skin, and thick, red skin with silvery patches.
- Symptoms of muscle or joint problems include persistent muscle pains and body aches that are persistent, for example, numbness or tingling; pain, tenderness, stiffness, swelling, inflammation, or redness in or around joints; and decreased range of motion or loss of function of any joints or muscles.
- Symptoms of emotional problems include anxiety, depression fatigue, feeling tense, flashbacks and nightmares, disinterest in regular activities, suicidal thoughts, hallucinations, or delusions.
- Symptoms of headache problems (not including everyday tension headaches) include headaches that come on suddenly, “the worst headache of your life,” and headache associated with severe dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and inability to walk.
- Symptoms of eating or weight problems include extreme thirst, dehydration, excessive hunger, losing weight without trying, binging, vomiting, starvation, preoccupation with food and weight, distorted body image, compulsive exercise, abuse of laxatives or diet pills, and depression.
Click here for Adolescents Health Risks
Around 1.2 billion people, or 1 in 6 of the world’s population, are adolescents aged 10 to 19. Most are healthy, but there is still substantial premature death, illness, and injury among adolescents. Illnesses can hinder their ability to grow and develop to their full potential. Alcohol or tobacco use, lack of physical activity, unprotected sex and/or exposure to violence can jeopardize not only their current health, but also their health as adults, and even the health of their future children.
Promoting healthy behaviours during adolescence, and taking steps to better protect young people from health risks are critical for the prevention of health problems in adulthood, and for countries’ future health and ability to develop and thrive.
Health Issues –
Injuries – Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death and disability among adolescents. In 2016, over 135 000 adolescents died as a result of road traffic accidents. Many of those who died were “vulnerable road users”, including pedestrians, cyclists or users of motorized two-wheelers. In many countries, road safety laws need to be made more comprehensive, and enforcement of such laws needs to be strengthened.
Drowning is also among the top 10 causes of death among adolescents – nearly 50 000 adolescents, over two thirds of them boys, are estimated to have drowned in 2016. Teaching children and adolescents to swim is an essential intervention to prevent these deaths.
Mental Health – Depression is one of the leading causes of illness and disability among adolescents, and suicide is the second leading cause of death in adolescents. Violence, poverty, humiliation and feeling devalued can increase the risk of developing mental health problems.
Violence – Interpersonal violence is the third leading cause of death in adolescents, globally, though its prominence varies substantially by world region. It causes nearly a third of all adolescent male deaths in low- and middle-income countries of the WHO Region of the Americas. Globally, nearly one in three adolescent girls aged 15 – 19 years (84 million) has been a victim of emotional, physical and/or sexual violence perpetrated by their husband or partner.
HIV/AIDS – An estimated 2.1 million adolescents were living with HIV in 2016; the great majority in the WHO African Region. Although the overall number of HIV-related deaths has been decreasing since the peak in 2006, estimates suggest that this is not yet the case among adolescents. This reflects the fact that most of today’s adolescents were born before prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV by antiretroviral therapy became widespread. However, a substantial proportion of HIV-positive adolescents are unaware of their status, and many of those who are aware of their status do not receive effective, long-term antiretroviral treatment.
Other Infectious Disease – improved childhood vaccination, adolescent deaths and disability from measles have fallen markedly. Diarrhoea and lower respiratory tract infections are estimated to be among the top 10 causes of death for 10–19 year olds. These two diseases, along with meningitis, are all among the top five causes of adolescent death in African low- and middle-income countries.
Early Pregnancy and Childbirth – The leading cause of death for 15-19 year-old girls globally is complications from pregnancy and childbirth. Some 11% of all births worldwide are to girls aged 15–19 years, and the vast majority of these births are in low- and middle-income countries.
Alcohol and Drugs – Harmful drinking among adolescents is a major concern in many countries. It reduces self-control and increases risky behaviours, such as unsafe sex or dangerous driving. It is an underlying cause of injuries (including those due to road traffic accidents), violence and premature deaths. It can also lead to health problems in later life and affects life expectancy.
Drug use among 15–19 year olds is also an important global concern. Drug control may focus on reducing drug demand, drug supply, or both, and successful programmes usually include structural, community, and individual-level interventions.
Nutrition and micronutrients deficiencies – Iron deficiency anaemia was the second leading cause of years lost by adolescents to death and disability in 2016. Iron and folic acid supplements are a solution that also helps to promote health before adolescents become parents.
Under nutrition and obesity – Many boys and girls in developing countries enter adolescence undernourished, making them more vulnerable to disease and early death. At the other end of the spectrum, the number of adolescents who are overweight or obese is increasing in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Globally, in 2016, over one in six adolescents aged 10–19 years was overweight.
Tobacco use – The vast majority of people using tobacco today began doing so when they were adolescents. Globally, at least 1 in 10 adolescents aged 13 to 15 years uses tobacco, although there are areas where this figure is much higher. Cigarette smoking seems to be decreasing among younger adolescents in some high-income countries.