SEE THE PERSON NOT THE DISABILITY
A physical disability is a limitation on a person’s physical functioning, mobility, dexterity or stamina. Other physical disabilities include impairments which limit other facets of daily living, such as respiratory disorders, blindness, epilepsy and sleep disorders.
Prenatal disabilities are acquired before birth. These may be due to diseases or substances that the mother has been exposed to during pregnancy, embryonic or fetal developmental accidents or genetic disorders.
Perinatal disabilities are acquired between some weeks before to up to four weeks after birth in humans. These can be due to prolonged lack of oxygen or obstruction of the respiratory tract, damage to the brain during birth (due to the accidental misuse of forceps, for example) or the baby being born prematurely. These may also be caused due to genetic disorders or accidents.
Post-natal disabilities are gained after birth. They can be due to accidents, obesity, infection or other illnesses. These may also be caused due to genetic disorders.
Mobility impairment includes physical defects, including upper or lower limb loss or impairment, poor manual dexterity, and damage to one or more organs of the body. Disability in mobility can be a congenital or acquired problem, or a consequence of disease. People who have a broken skeletal structure also fall into this category.
Visual Loss, Hearing loss ( Partial or total ), can also be due to disorders causing, among others, sleep deficiency, chronic fatigue, chronic pain, and seizures. Nowadays most of the cases of disabilities are due to Accidents mostly due to two Wheeler or four wheeler. Accidents on trains are also on the rise.
Physical disability is defined as Conditions such as limb amputations, back impairments, muscular dystrophy, blindness, and deafness that can significantly impact activities of daily living, such as communication, work tolerance, self-care, and mobility.
According to the World Health Organization, disability has three dimensions:
- Impairment in a person’s body structure or function, or mental functioning; examples of impairments include loss of a limb, loss of vision or memory loss.
- Activity limitation, such as difficulty seeing, hearing, walking, or problem solving.
- Participation restrictions in normal daily activities, such as working, engaging in social and recreational activities, and obtaining health care and preventive services.
Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill – 2016 Passed by Parliament in December 2016
1. Physical Disabilities
Includes physiological, functional and or mobility impairments.
Can be fluctuating or intermittent, chronic, progressive or stable, visible or invisible.
Some involve extreme pain, some less, some none at all.
Types of Physical disabilities :-
3. Multiple sclerosis (MS)
5. Cerebral palsy
6. Absent limb/reduced limb function
2. Visual Disabilities : Legally Blind describes an individual who has 10% or less of normal vision.Only 10% of people with a visual disability are actually totally blind. The other 90% are described as having a Visual Impairment. Some of the common vision impairment includes scratched cornea, scratches on the sclera, diabetes related eye conditions, dry eyes and corneal graft. Visual impairments can be caused by a multitude of factors, including disease, accidents, and congenital illnesses. There is a difference between the needs of visually impaired individuals and blind people.
3. Hearing Disabilities
Deaf describes an individual who has severe to profound hearing loss.
Deafened describes an individual who has acquired a hearing loss in adulthood.
Deaf Blind describes an individual who has both a sight and hearing loss.
Hard of Hearing describes an individual who uses their residual hearing and speech to communicate.
4. Mental Health Disabilities : Mental health disabilities can take many forms, just as physical disabilities do. Unlike many physical illnesses though, all mental illnesses can be treated. Mental illnesses can include stress-related conditions, major depression, bipolar disorder — formally called manic-depressive illness –, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Depression is the most common non-psychotic mental illness –psychosis being a disorder which features the loss of contact with reality–.
5. Intellectual Disabilities : also known as Mental Retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning. It is defined by an IQ score under 70 in addition to deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors that affect everyday, general living. Involves a permanent limitation in a person’s ability to learn.Unfortunately, the very fact that these symptoms are invisible can lead to misunderstandings, false perceptions, and judgments.
6. Learning Disabilities : Learning disabilities are neurological differences in processing information that severely limit a person’s ability to learn in a specific skill area. That is, these disorders are the result of actual differences in the way the brain processes, understands, and uses information. Everyone has differences in learning abilities, but people with learning disabilities have severe problems that persist throughout their lives.There is no cure for learning disabilities. Special education programs can help people cope and compensate for these disorders, but the learning disability will last a lifetime. Learning disabled people may have difficulty in school or on the job. These disabilities may also impact independent living and social relationships.
7. Neurological Disabilities : A neurological disability is associated with damage to the nervous system that results in the loss of some physical or mental functions. A neurological disability may affect a person’s capacity to move or manipulate things or the way they act or express their feelings. The way they think and process information may also be significantly influenced. The brain and the spine are the areas of the body most closely associated with neurology. Heart attacks, serious infections, and lack of oxygen to the brain may also result in a neurological disability.
8. Spinal Cord Disability : Spinal cord injury can sometimes lead to lifelong disabilities. This kind of injury mostly occurs due to severe accidents. The injury can be either complete or incomplete. In an incomplete injury, the messages conveyed by the spinal cord is not completely lost. Whereas a complete injury results in a total dis-functioning of the sensory organs. In some cases spinal cord disability can be a birth defect.
9. Invisible Disabilities : Invisible Disabilities are disabilities that are not immediately apparent to others. Invisible disability in simple terms is a physical, mental or neurological condition that limits a person’s movements, senses, or activities that is invisible to the onlooker. Invisible disability refers to symptoms such as debilitating pain, fatigue, dizziness, cognitive dysfunctions, brain injuries, learning differences and mental health disorders, as well as hearing and vision impairments. Unfortunately, the very fact that these symptoms are invisible can lead to misunderstandings, false perceptions, and judgments.
10. Psychiatric Disabilities : A psychiatric disability (or mental illness) can develop at any age and is often not apparent to other people. Psychiatric disabilities are often the most misunderstood disabilities in the community, and peoples’ attitudes may be based on prejudice and myth (e.g. schizophrenics are potentially violent).
11. Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD) : is the name for a group of developmental disorders. ASD includes a wide range, “a spectrum,” of symptoms, skills, and levels of disability. People with ASD often have these characteristics: Ongoing social problems that include difficulty communicating and interacting with others.
12. Poliomyelitis or called as Polio : is a viral disease that destroys the nerve cells present in the spinal cord causing paralysis of some parts of the body or causing muscle weakness. It is a contagious disease affecting the nervous system and is caused by poliovirus. Poliovirus can also be transmitted from one person to another through the fecal matter. It even spreads through contaminated foods. The virus mainly affects the children within the age of 5. The body parts which are infected by this disease are legs, neck, head. There is no any cure for polio; hence it has to be prevented by taking polio vaccine in the early age.
DISABILITY IS NOT INABILITY.
YOUR WORDS, ATTITUDES AND ACTIONS IMPACT MY LIFE MORE THAN MY DISABILITY.
AS FAR AS WE ARE CONCERNED, DISABILITY MEANS POSSIBILITY
MY LIFE MAY NOT BE GOING THE WAY I PLANNED IT, BUT IT IS GOING EXACTLY THE WAY GOD PLANNED IT.
DISABLED, NOT DISABLE. know the difference.Click here for Misconceptions about Disability
1. A physical disability automatically means a mental disability as well.
2. Wheelchair users are confined to their chairs and it’s a miracle when we actually walk.
3. We can’t speak or do anything for ourselves, so look to whoever is with us instead of talking to us.
4. We can’t be self-sufficient and independent, go to college or get real jobs.
5. We are not whole or good enough. We need fixing and healing. Pray for us in public.
6. A physical disability means more inability than ability.
7. We need a lot of physical therapy, surgeries, constant care giving, adaptive equipment, etc. and are miserable.
8. A physical disability means we instantly relate to another person with a disability.
9. We can’t date, get married, or have fulfilling romantic relationships.
10. We are inspirations for reaching “normal” milestones and leading “normal” lives.
We need to bring these misconceptions into the light. Those living with physical disabilities are always people first — valuable human beings. We carry the same hopes, dreams, and ambitions in our hearts. We want to be a part of culture, actively involved in the community around us, not separate.
There is a growing gap between what culture says and what we know to be true, because assumptions pervade the air.
However, we can fight the misconceptions. We can bridge the gap, but we can’t do it alone. We need our family and friends to speak up with us.
Speak on our behalf when we are not present.
Start the hard conversations.
Remind others to stop assuming anything based on outward appearance.
Even if a person looks different, please try your best to not make them feel different. That person just wants to be seen, known, and loved as an equal.
For every misconception I face, I’m that much more thankful for everyone who loves the real me.
Myths, stereotypes and stigma about disability are barriers to the realization
of the human rights of people with disabilities.
Common myths and stereotypes that emerge repeatedly in society include the following assumptions :-
Myth #1 – People with disabilities are sick and in constant pain : People with disabilities are like people without disabilities. People get sick on occasion or sometimes may be in pain. People with disabilities typically do not suffer or experience pain due to their condition.
Myth #2 – People with disabilities are special and should be treated differently : The label of “special” in reference to a person with a disability does not convey equality. Expectations for success should not be underestimated to accommodate the “special” label that is associated with people with disabilities.
Myth #3 – Disability is a personal tragedy and deserves our pity : Disability is often viewed as an unending burden. People with disabilities are often viewed as tragic figures whom society should pity. Disability does not mean a poor quality of life. It is often the negative attitudes of society and the lack of accessibility within the community that are the real tragedy.
Myth #4 – People with disabilities are dependent and always need help : All of us may have difficulty doing some things and may require assistance. People with disabilities may require help on occasion; however, disability does not mean dependency. It is always a good strategy not to assume a person with a disability needs assistance. Just ask!
Myth #5 – People with disabilities cannot lead a full and productive life : People with disabilities are capable of fully participating in community life. The challenge is to focus on a person’s ability, not their limitations.
Myth #6 – People with disabilities live very different lives than people without disabilities : Overall, people with disabilities live the same as you and I. Although, some ways of doing things may be a little bit different depending on the type and severity of a person’s disability.
Myth #7 – People with disabilities can only work at special jobs made just for them : As with all people, certain jobs may be better for some than for others. People should not be denied employment opportunities based on the disability they have. Just because you can only think of one way to do something does not mean that other ways do not exist that are equally effective.
Myth #8 – People who have developmental disabilities do not have the same feelings as people without disabilities : False: All people experience similar emotions, whether they express them the same way or not.
Myth #9 – Employees with disabilities have a higher absentee rate than employees without disabilities : Studies by research firms shows that employees with disabilities are not absent any more than employees without disabilities. In fact, these studies show that on the average, people with disabilities have better attendance rates than their non-disabled counterparts.
Myth #10 – Considerable expense is necessary to accommodate workers with disabilities :
Most workers with disabilities require no special accommodations and the cost for those who do is minimal or much lower than many employers believe.
Myth #11 – Persons with disabilities have problems with transportation : Persons with disabilities are capable of arranging their own transportation: walking, biking, driving, taking public transportation, hiring a driver, or taking a cab. Just because a person has a disability doesn’t mean they can’t get around.
Myth #12 – Disability means handicap : People with disabilities are only handicapped when environmental or physical barriers or people’s attitudes interfere with or prevent them from performing certain activities.
Myth #13 – The lives of people with disabilities are totally different than the lives of people without : People with disabilities go to school, get married, work, have families, do laundry, grocery shop, laugh, cry, pay taxes, get angry, have prejudices, vote, plan and dream like everyone else.
Myth #14 – All disabilities are caused by a disease or are inherited : In most cases disabilities are the result of an accident very few are due to diseases or inherited.
Myth #15 – People with disabilities always need help : Many people with disabilities are quite independent and capable of giving help to others.
Myth #16 – People with disability can only do basic unskilled jobs : People with disability bring a range of skills, talents and abilities to the workplace. They work in all sorts of jobs and hold a range of tertiary and trade qualifications. People with disability have a clear understanding of their abilities and are unlikely to apply for jobs they can’t do.
Myth #17 – People with disabilities are a one-dimensional group : There are societal assumptions that tend to view people with disabilities as a one-dimensional group who all have the same needs, interests and opinions. People with disabilities reflect the same diversity that exists in the rest of society, including varying social, economic,cultural, family and educational characteristics.
Myth #18 – People with disability have lower productivity levels at work : The productivity of people with disability at work is largely not affected by their disability. Most people with disability are as productive as their colleagues without disability and receive full wages.