Medicine has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture. For example, a medicine man would apply herbs and say prayers for healing, or an ancient philosopher and physician would apply bloodletting according to the theories of humorism. In recent centuries, since the advent of modern science, most medicine has become a combination of art and science (both basic and applied, under the umbrella of medical science).
- alleviating / curing
The clinical examination involves the study of:
- Vital signs including height, weight, body temperature, blood pressure, pulse, respiration rate, and hemoglobin oxygen saturation
- General appearance of the patient and specific indicators of disease (nutritional status, presence of jaundice, pallor or clubbing)
- Head, eye, ear, nose, and throat (HEENT)
- Cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels)
- Respiratory (large airways and lungs)
- Abdomen and rectum
- Genitalia (and pregnancy if the patient is or could be pregnant)
- Musculoskeletal (including spine and extremities)
- Neurological (consciousness, awareness, brain, vision, cranial nerves, spinal cord and peripheral nerves)
- Psychiatric (orientation, mental state, evidence of abnormal perception or thought)
The treatment plan may include ordering additional medical laboratory tests and medical imaging studies, starting therapy, referral to a specialist, or watchful observation. Follow-up may be advised. Sometimes even second opinion is advisable before taking major decision.
Click here for Some of the Branches of Medicine are :-
- Anatomy – the study of the physical structure of the body
- Biochemistry – studies what chemical components are and what they do in the body
- Biomechanics – studies how biological systems in the body work, as well as their structure. This is done using mechanics.
- Biostatistics – applying statistics to biological fields. Biostatistics is crucial for successful medical research as well as many areas of medical practice.
- Biophysics – uses physics, mathematics, chemistry and biology to model and understand the workings of biological systems.
- Cytology – a branch of pathology, the medical and scientific microscopic study of cells
- Embryology – a branch of biology which studies the formation, early growth and development of organisms.
- Endocrinology – the study of hormones and their impact on the body
- Epidemiology – the study of causes, distribution and control of diseases in populations.
- Genetics – the study of genes.
- Histology – studies the form of structures under the microscope. Also known as microscopic anatomy.
- Microbiology – the study of organisms that are too small to see with the naked eye – microorganisms. Included in this field are bacteriology, virology, mycology (study of fungi), and parasitology.
- Neuroscience – the study of the nervous system and the brain. Included in this field are diseases of the nervous system, computational modeling, psychophysics, cognitive neuroscience, cellular neuroscience, and molecular neuroscience.
- Nutrition – studying how food and drink influence health and help treat, cure and prevent diseases and conditions which influence on disease risk.
- Pathology – the study of disease. A branch of medicine which looks at the essential nature of disease.
- Pharmacology – the study of pharmaceutical medications (drugs), where they come from, how they work, how the body responds to them, and what they consist of.
- Physiology – studying how living organisms exist, how they feed themselves, move and reproduce.
- Radiology – the use of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation to diagnose and treat disease.
- Toxicology – studying poisons, what they are, what effects they have on the body, and how to detect them.
Click here for Glossary of Medical Terms
Abdomen : Area between the chest and the hips that contains the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen.
Abortion : An abortion is the premature exit of the products of conception (the fetus, fetal membranes, and placenta) from the uterus.
Acupressure : A traditional Chinese healing technique in which finger pressure is applied to specific points on the body to treat disease and alleviate symptoms.
Acupuncture : A traditional Chinese healing technique that involves inserting thin needles into different acupuncture points on the body. Acupuncture is believed to improve the flow of qi, the body’s vital energy; it is used for many conditions, including pain and addiction.
Acute Hepatitis : The initial stage of viral hepatitis following infection. In HCV, acute hepatitis refers to the first six months of infection.
Allergy : An abnormal immune response to an antigen (allergen) that does not normally cause an adverse reaction (e.g., animal dander, pollen). Allergic reactions are caused by the release of histamine by mast cells, a type of white blood cell. Allergic symptoms may include runny nose (rhinitis), skin rash, asthma, and anaphylactic shock.
Angiography : X-ray that uses dye injected into arteries so that blood circulation can be studied.
Angioplasty : The use of a small balloon on the tip of a catheter inserted into a blood vessel to open up an area of blockage inside the vessel.
Antibiotic : An agent that kills or inhibits the growth of bacteria.
Arthritis : Joint inflammation.
Biopsy: A procedure in which a sample of cells or tissue is taken for laboratory examination. Liver biopsies are used to monitor liver disease progression in people with HCV.
Blood Transfusion : The infusion of blood or blood components into an individual for the treatment of a medical condition. Transfusions may be homologous (from a donor) or autologous (previously stored blood from the recipient).
Blood Type Rh : A blood test that checks for the presence or absence of the Rh antigen, also called the Rh factor.
Body Mass Index ( BMI ) : A measurement of body fat determined by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by height (in meters squared).
Cancer : A malignant neoplasm or tumor characterized by abnormal cell proliferation. Types include carcinoma (which affects epithelial cells), sarcoma (which affects soft tissues), lymphoma and leukemia (which affect lymphoid tissue), and glioma (which affects brain tissue).
Casarean Section : Surgical procedure to deliver a baby through an incision in the lower abdomen and uterus.
Cell : The basic unit of living organisms. A cell contains a nucleus and a cell wall (in plants) or a cell membrane (in animals) which surrounds the cellular material , called cytoplasm.
Central Nervous system : The brain and spinal cord.
Chemotherapy : The use of drugs to treat disease.
Cholesterol : Fatty substance in animal tissue that is an essential component of cell membranes, certain hormones, and nerve fiber insulation. Cholesterol is manufactured by the liver, and is also present in certain foods. There are two primary types of cholesterol in the blood, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is considered a risk factor for heart disease; and high- density lipoprotein (HDL), which is considered protective.
Chronic : A long-term or persistent disease. Contrast with acute.
Clot : A sticky mass of coagulated blood cells and platelets.
Colon : Large Intestine.
Colonoscopy : Endoscopic examination of colon.
Coma : A state of deep unconsciousness; a vegetative state.
Coronary : Coronary arteries come from the aorta to provide blood to the heart muscle.
Coronary Bypass : Surgical procedure in which a healthy blood vessel is transplanted from another part of the body into the heart to replace or bypass a diseased vessel.
Creatinine : A metabolic byproduct produced by muscles; high levels in the blood may indicate kidney dysfunction.
CT Scan : Computed Tomography (CT) is a non-invasive, diagnostic procedure that uses a series of x-rays to show a cross-sectional view of the inside of the body.
Dehydration : Loss or lack of water in the body. Dehydration may result from prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, and may disrupt many bodily processes.
Diagnostic X-ray : Diagnostic test that uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
Dialysis : A method for filtering waste from the blood that replaces the function of the kidneys that are not working properly.
Digestive System : The organs (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus) associated with ingestion and digestion of food.
Eczema : A type of skin rash.
Endoscopy : A method of examining the interior of a body cavity or hollow organ (e.g., esophagus, stomach) using an endoscope, a narrow, flexible fiber optic instrument that conducts light.
Fallopian Tube : Thin tubes that extend from each side of the uterus, toward the ovaries, as a passageway for eggs and sperm.
Fetus : Unborn baby from the eighth week after fertilization until delivery.
Fibula : Calf bone; the outer and thinner of the two bones of the human leg between the knee and ankle.
Forearm : The part of the arm between the elbow and the wrist.
Fusion : Correction of an unstable part of the spine by joining two or more vertebrae. Usually done surgically, but sometimes done by traction or immobilization.
Gastroenterostomy : Surgical creation of an opening between the stomach wall and the small intestines; performed when the normal opening has been eliminated.
Glucose Test : A test to measure the amount of a type of sugar in the blood.
Hemoglobin : Hemoglobin is a substance within red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout your body. Also refers to a test of the amount of hemoglobin in red blood cells.
Hepatitis : Inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis may have various causes, including viruses, toxins, and heavy alcohol consumption.
Hernia : Protrusion of part of an organ through the muscle that surrounds it.
Herpes : A common viral infection that can cause fever blisters, genital sores, and shingles.
HIV : Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks the immune system, making it difficult for the body to fight infection and disease. HIV is transmitted through blood-to-blood contact, sexual activity, or from mother to child.
Hysterectomy : Surgical removal of the uterus.
Image Post-Processing : Manipulating the information from the CT scan to better visualize the part of the body that is being examined.
Infection : A condition in which the body is invaded by an infectious organism (e.g., bacteria, virus, fungus).
Infusion : The introducing of a solution into a vein.
Insomnia : Inability to sleep.
Insulin : A peptide hormone produced in the pancreas that enables cells to use glucose. Lack of or insensitivity to insulin results in diabetes.
Insurance : An employer provided or personally purchased insurance policy that provides coverage for health care services.
Internal Fixation : The stabilization of broken bones by direct fixation to one another with surgical wires, pins, screws, or plates.
Ionized Calcium Test : A test to measure the amount of calcium that is not bound to protein in the blood.
Iron : An important trace element needed for the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells. High levels of iron can be toxic to the liver.
Jaundice : yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels in the blood. Jaundice is often a sign of liver damage or gallbladder disease.
Kidney Stone : an accumulation of substances (e.g., drug crystals, minerals) in the kidneys, leading to blockage and pain.
Laparoscopic : Relating to the use of a viewing tube with a lens or camera (and a light on the end), which is inserted through a small incision in the abdomen to examine the contents of the abdomen and remove tissue samples.
Lead Test : A test to measure the amount of lead present in the blood.
Liver : A large organ on the upper right side of the abdomen that plays an important role in the metabolism of sugars and fats, synthesizes several proteins, and filters toxins from the blood.
Liver Cancer : Malignant proliferation of cells in the liver. The most common type of liver cancer in people with chronic hepatitis is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Lumbar : Relating to or near the lower back between the ribs and the hipbones.
Magnesium Level : A test to measure the amount of magnesium in the blood.
Malnutrition : Lack of the minimum amount of nutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, minerals, etc.) necessary for good health. Malnutrition may result from poor diet, lack of appetite, or inadequate absorption of nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract.
Mammography : Diagnostic procedure to detect breast tumors by the use of X-rays.
Mastectomy : Surgical removal of all or part of the breast.
Meditation : A technique for relaxation and clearing and focusing the mind.
Microalbumin Test : A test that measures the amount of albumin in the urine. Albumin is a protein that is produced in the liver and released into the blood.
MRA ( Magnetic Resonance Angiogram ) : Diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of a large magnet, radio frequencies and a computer to produce detailed images of the blood vessels.
MRI ( Magnetic Resonance Imaging ) : Diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radio frequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body.
Nasal Septum : Partition of bone and cartilage between the nasal cavities.
Oncologist : A physician who specializes in the treatment of cancer.
Pathologist : Physician who identifies diseases by studying cells and tissues under a microscope.
Pelvis : Basin-shaped structure that supports the spinal column and contains the sacrum, coccyx, and hip bones (ilium, pubis, and ischium).
Phosphorous : Phosphorus is a component of DNA and RNA and is necessary for all living cells.
Plasma : The fluid, non-cellular portion of circulating blood.
Platelet Count : The number of platelets in the blood. People with advanced liver disease may have reduced platelet counts, resulting in easy bleeding. A normal platelet count is 130,000-400,000/mcl.
Potassium : Potassium is an essential component necessary for all living cells.
Prosthesis : Potassium is an essential component necessary for all living cells.
Protein : A complex organic compound consisting of a sequence of amino acids folded in a specific configuration. Proteins are major components of living cells and are essential for bodily growth and repair.
Psoriasis : A skin condition characterized by scaling and red patches, due to the overproduction of skin cells.
Radiation Therapy : The use of radiation to treat disease (especially cancer).
Radiologist : Physician specializing in the field of radiology (x-rays or other imaging technologies, such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging) to diagnose or treat disease.
Reiki : A healing technique in which energy is channeled through the hands of the healer.
Syndrome : A set of symptoms or disease manifestations that occur together.
Throat Culture : A test to detect and identify a bacterial, fungal or viral infection in the throat.
Thyroid Gland : Endocrine gland located in the neck that regulates metabolism (the chemical processes in the body) and growth; the gland produces thyroid hormone.
Tibia : Shin bone or larger bone of the lower leg.
Transfusion : The transfer of blood or blood components from one individual to another (or back to the donor, in the case of autologous transfusion).
Transplant : Surgical transfer of an organ from one person to another.
Tumor : An abnormal growth of cells. Tumors may be malignant (cancerous) or benign (harmless).
Ultrasonography : A method of visualizing the internal parts of the body, or a fetus within the uterus, using sound waves.
Ultrasound : Diagnostic imaging technique which uses high-frequency sound waves and a computer to create images of blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Ultrasounds are used to view internal organs as they function, and to assess blood flow through various vessels.
Urinalysis : A physical or chemical test of the urine.
Vaccine : A preparation administered to stimulate an immune response to protect a person from illness. A vaccine typically includes a small amount of a killed or inactivated microorganism, or genetically engineered pieces. A therapeutic (treatment) vaccine is given after infection and is intended to reduce or stop disease progression. A preventive (prophylactic) vaccine is intended to prevent initial infection.
Vascular : Pertaining to blood vessels.
Vitamin A : A fat-soluble vitamin synthesized from beta carotene within the body that has antioxidant properties and is important for proper immune system functioning. Excess vitamin A can be toxic to the liver. Carrot, Sweet Potato, Spinach, Butter and Eggs are rich in vitamin A
Vitamin B : A complex of several important vitamins including B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B6 (pyridoxine), and B12 (cobalamin).
Vitamin B12 : Vitamin B12 is necessary for creating new red blood cells, maintaining nervous system health, and growth and development in children.Fish, Meat, Poultry Eggs, Milk and Milk Products are reach in Vitamin B12.
Vitamin C : An antioxidant vitamin that protects cells from oxidative damage. Vitamin C deficiency may result in poor healing, easy bruising and anemia.Banana, Kiwi, Orange, Strawberry and papaya are rich in Vitamin C.
Vitamin D : A fat-soluble vitamin that is important for mineral metabolism and which may play a role in immune function. Excess vitamin D can be toxic to the liver. Dairy products, Orange Juice, Soy Milk, Egg Yolks and Cereals are reach in Vitamin D.
Vitamin E : An antioxidant vitamin that protects cell membranes from oxidative damage. Almond Spinach, Sweet Potato, hazelnuts, Sun Flower Seeds and palm Oil are reach in Vitamin E.
Vitamin K : A substance important for blood clotting. Green leafy vegetables, Cabbage, Broccoli and cauliflower are reach in Vitamin K.
Vitamin P : Natural pigments found in fruits and vegetables that increase absorption of vitamin C. grape seed, Citrus fruit, Tea, cocoa and chocolate are reach in Vitamin P.
Virus : A microscopic infectious organism that is unable to grow or replicate outside of a host cell. Viruses integrate their genetic material (DNA or RNA) into a host cell and take over the cell’s biological mechanisms to reproduce new virus particles.
X-Ray : Diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
Myths of Medicine and Misinformation:-
Myth 1 – Cold Weather can give you cold : Viruses cause colds, not cold weather. Colds are more prevalent during the colder months because people tend to spend more time inside, making it much easier for viruses to jump from person to person.
Myth 2 – Sugar makes Kids Hyperactive : Sugar can provide a short-term energy boost, but that isn’t the same as hyperactivity. These high-calorie foods offer little nutrition and can lead to obesity and other problems, but no scientific evidence says sugar causes hyperactivity.
Myth 3 – Eating at night makes you fat : It does not matter what time of day you eat, as long as you eat only the total calories that you burn each day, you will not gain weight.
Myth 4 – Chewing gum takes long time to pass through your system : It is true that gum is not digestible in the human body, but it simply passes whole through your system. It doesn’t stick to your insides, it just continues along with any food you have eaten and pops out the other end.
Myth 5 – Antibiotics are the answers for every Illness : Antibiotic are only helpful in illnesses caused by bacteria. Most illnesses, like colds and sore throats, are caused by viruses that don’t respond at all to antibiotics.
Myth 6 – Cardio is one of the best type of exercise : Traditional cardio only works on the slow twitch muscle fibers in your red muscle, completely ignoring your white muscle super-fast twitch fibers.
Myth 7 – Low Fat Diets are Healthy : The low-fat myth may have done more harm to the health of millions than any other dietary recommendation. The low-fat craze led to increased consumption of trans-fats, which we now know increases your risk of obesity, diabetes and heart disease.
Myth 8 – Eating Ice Cream will make your cold worse : If you’re home sick with a cold, you can totally go ahead and comfort yourself with some ice cream. According to researchers “frozen dairy products can soothe a sore throat and provide calories when you otherwise may not eat.”
Myth 9 – Your blood turns blue when its out of Oxygen : Your blood is never blue: It turns dark red when it’s not carrying oxygen. Blood only looks blue because you are seeing it through several layers of tissue, which filters the color.
Myth 10 – Humans Can’t grow new brain cells : You are not born with all of the brain cells you will ever have. There is plenty of evidence that the brain continues to produce new cells in at least a few brain regions well into adulthood, through a process called neurogenesis.
Myth 11 – everyone should drink eight glasses of water a day : Hydration is very important, but the idea that eight glasses of water is essential is a strange one. In healthy people, researchers have not found any connection between fluid intake and kidney disease, heart disease, sodium levels, or skin quality. A good rule is to drink when you’re thirsty — you don’t need to count the glasses.
Myth 12 – Sitting too close to the TV is bad for your eyes : The most this will do is give you a headache from eye fatigue. This rumor probably started with old TVs, which produced some X-rays, but newer ones don’t.
Myth 13 – cracking your knuckles will give you Arthritis : Fortunately, this isn’t true either. Cracking your knuckles may annoy the people around you, but even people who have done it frequently for many years are not more likely to develop arthritis than those who don’t.
Myth 14 – Being stressed will give you high blood pressure : Stress doesn’t play a large role in chronic high blood pressure. Acute stress can temporarily increase blood pressure, but overall it’s not a main cause of hypertension. Things like genetics, smoking, and a bad diet are much bigger factors.
Myth 15 – Bottled water is better than tap water : Bottled water is generally not worse or better than tap water because over 50 percent of it is just tap water.
Myth 16 – barefoot is the best way to walk : There’s a popular trend now that says not wearing shoes is good for your feet, but that is not necessarily true. Walking barefoot makes your feet susceptible to cuts, scrapes, wounds, and even fungal nail infections.
Myth 17 – You need to rinse after you brush your teeth : Most toothpastes contains levels of fluoride that help reverse the early stages of tooth decay by remineralizing the tooth enamel. If you rinse with a mouthwash or water, you don’t give the toothpaste enough time to work, so you don’t get the full benefit.
Myth 18 – carbs make you fat : Many people are avoiding carbs trying to lose weight, but carbs are part of a healthy diet and necessary, especially if you work out. Oats, barley, bread and brown rice carbs help decrease risk of heart disease, diabetes, some cancer, and metabolic syndrome. They also help maintain a healthy weight.
Myth 19 – Dental X-rays will give you cancer : You will not get cancer from dental X-rays or any medical X-ray. Standing outside in the sun for an hour exposes you to more radiation than you’d get from a full set of dental X-rays.
Myth 20 – Small meals throughout the day are better than three big meals : The most important factor to consider in your meals is not how many of them there are but how well you balance macronutrients at every meal. Ideally you need plant fibers, greater than 50 grams per day. The primary goal is to keep the gut happy by providing it with macro-meals rich in plant fibers and healthy fats.
Myth 21 – Food eaten after 8 pm turn directly into fat : This ‘diet tip’ isn’t true; food eaten at night isn’t metabolized any differently than food eaten earlier in the day. A healthy pre-bedtime snack for people trying to lose weight is recommended .
Myth 22 – No pain No gain : Pain is a signal that something is wrong. Especially when you’re trying to recover from an injury or disability, you should not suffer through additional pain.